劫后天府泪纵横

2009-5-12 Jerry 日记

506x316_chinasunnaturaldisaster02 Sichuan, China. In the aftermath of the massive earthquake that rocked this central region of China, several communities are in mourning for the children they lost. At Fuxin Primary School, where 127 students died, families place framed photographs of dead boys and girls in a makeshift memorial next to the rubble, burning incense and symbolic paper currency to honor them. A boy survivor cries, remembering his lost classmates. A father tells us how his son was the top student in four subjects. A mother wipes the glass on her portrait inside the memorial, explaining, "I have to clean your face before I leave."

At Hanwang Primary School, 317 students died. Standing amidst the ruins, a father still hasn't found his daughter: "After ten days I haven't seen her face." Another man explains that local leaders said "we weren't hit hard, we can handle ourselves." Young voices that cried out from under slabs of concrete are silent now, as heavy machinery tread lightly on the ruins to avoid dismembering bodies. Back at Fuxin, parents remember hearing how the buildings were unsafe, but nothing was done. "Who inspected and built the building?" asks one. "Where is the government?" In a field behind their home, the parents of a victim show pictures of their son, and visit the mound of soil where they were forced to bury him. "We want justice to prevent future tragedies," says the mother. "This is a lesson of blood." Even more children - 438 - died at Xinjian Primary School. A woman shows off a class photo with some 30 or 40 students. All but one student and the teacher died. Parents here rail about the school building's "shoddy construction," complaining that the mortar and concrete did not meet standards. Likewise, in Hongbai Schools, where 430 children died, questions about the quality of building construction are raised over the sound of sobs. China has a strict one-child policy, and most of these parents lost their only child.

In Mianzu City, protesters vent their complaints with a director from the Board of Education. "Where did the school money go?" asks a man. Next to the wreckage we see an intact warehouse building that survived the quake; it used to be a school, and students would have been safe here. Instead, a parent shows us an official letter of compensation: $317 for each dead child. A father plays us a song his daughter recorded on his cell phone. He and his wife show us the forest in which they buried their child, along with many others. Back at Fuxin, parents examine the fallen building's bricks, dumbfounded by the lack of cement on them. "If children are the flowers of our country, is this where you plant them?" asks a mother. The lack of response from local officials has caused parents here to begin a 70-mile march to Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. They start off full of resolve, jostling a Party Secretary and breaking through a line of police officers. Chants accusing officials of negligence and wrongful deaths abound. One woman recounts how, after being denied use of an overcrowded crematorium, she was forced to personally carry the body of her daughter home, first by motorcycle and then (when the bike stalled) by foot.

Eventually, parents are pressured to board buses to a nearby government office in the regional capital of Deyang. After officials promise to visit the Fuxin school the next day, parents return home to await government inspection. Inspectors and engineers from the Architecture Institute finally arrive, as promised, with some admitting that the construction of the school was faulty. Eventually, officials shoo away most of the onlookers and camera crews, explaining that "Starting tomorrow, only a select group of parents can be here." Eventually, the government bans gatherings of more than three parents at school sites, warning villagers that protesting is unpatriotic. One protesting mother is berated by other villagers, who remind her that the Communist Party has done a lot of good in the wake of the disaster, and who lecture her for speaking with foreign filmmakers. She returns to her farming, which had been neglected in her grief, and laments how she'd hoped her daughter would be cultured and highly educated. It turns out that compensation is tied to a pledge to "obey the law and maintain social order." With the implication that the protests will cease, parents are offered $8,800 per dead child. Later, 58 parents from Fuxin Primary School file a suit seeking additional damages and a public apology. Their lawsuit is rejected.

中国四川,当规模巨大的地震突袭中国这一内陆地区之后,几个乡镇正在悼念这场灾难中丧生的孩子们。富新小学有127名学生遇难,家长们在校舍的瓦砾旁临时搭建了个灵堂,将死去孩子们的照片镶上镜框后摆在上边,灵前再放些香烛、烧写纸钱。一个小男孩想起死去的同学们,面对镜头失声痛哭;一位丧子的父亲还一直念念不忘,他的儿子四门功课都是全班第一;一位母亲擦拭着她孩子相框上的玻璃,喃喃道:“妈一定要把你的脸擦干净了再走。”

汉旺小学有317名学生死亡。在一堆废墟之中,一位父亲还没有放弃对女儿的寻找:“已经过了十天了,我一直都没看见她的人。”旁边一个人告诉我们,当地的官员宣称“我们受灾不严重,我们自己能应付”。水泥板下那些稚嫩的呼救声现在已经完全消失,现场取而代之的是机器的轰鸣,为了不破坏遗体,那些机器不得不在废墟上分外小心的工作。镜头回到富新,家长们正在诉说在地震发生前他们就听说过建筑质量有问题,但当时相关单位没有采取任何补救措施。“这栋楼是谁检查的?谁施工的?”一个家长质问,“政府到哪儿去了?”另一对失去儿子的父母在自家屋后一片空地上给我们看了他们孩子的一些相片,然后带我们来到孩子的新坟前。“为了将来不出现类似的惨剧,我们一定要讨个公道”,这位母亲说,“这是血的教训啊。”更多的孩子,确切的说是438名,死在了新建小学。一位妇女拿出一张约有三四十人的班级合影,照片上除了一个学生和一个老师外,全部遇难。此地的家长们咒骂着学校建的都是“豆腐渣工程”,水泥和钢筋根本就没有达标。同样,在有430名孩子遇难的红白小学,悲痛的家长们也逐渐开始质疑学校的建筑质量问题。由于计划生育政策,他们中的大多数人就此失去了自己唯一的孩子。

在绵竹市,示威家长们围住了一位教育局的主管干部。“学校的钱都花到哪儿去了?”一个男人质问道。在一堆废墟旁边,我们见到了一座地震后完好如初的仓库。那仓库原本是一间校舍,如果学生们还在那里上课也许就能活下来。一位家长给我们看了一封政府关于补偿的来信:每个丧生的孩子补偿2000块人民币。一位父亲给我们放了他录在自己手机上女儿的歌声,然后带我们看了埋葬他女儿的小树林,除了他女儿,树林还有很多其他孩子的新坟。镜头又回到富新,家长们检查了倒塌建筑里的砖头,发现水泥使用的很少,这气得他们简直说不出话来。“如果孩子是国家未来的花朵,这就是你们栽培花朵的地方吗?!”一位母亲说。由于当地官员拿不出解决办法,家长们决定步行112公里去省会成都鸣冤。他们出发的时候很坚决,冲开了党委书记和警察设置的人墙,并不时大骂官员们玩忽职守并且瞒报死亡人数。一位妇女回忆说,因为火葬场根本都已经忙不过来,她不得不自己开着摩托车把女儿的遗体带回了家(中途摩托车还熄火了,后半程只能靠自己背)。

最终,家长们迫于压力还是上了政府安排的大巴,然后被运往了德阳市政府。当地官员保证第二天会到富新小学去检查,家长这才各自回了家。第二天,检查人员和建筑学院的工程师如期而至。经检查,他们部分承认学校存在建筑问题。最终,官员们驱散了围观的群众以及我们的摄制组,并且说“从明天起,只有经批准后的家长才能来学校”。最后,政府禁止超过三名以上的家长来学校聚集,并警告村民,聚众示威是不爱国的行为。一位参加示威的母亲受到了其他村民的斥责。他们不断提醒她共产党在灾后做了很多很多好事,并且还教育她对外国记者应该怎么怎么说。这位母亲回到了田地里,重新拾起了因为悲痛而荒废了很久的农活,但她还不忘诉说着她曾经是多么地期望自己的女儿能成为一个有文化、受过高等教育的人。后来,补偿金与保证“守法和维持社会秩序”联系了起来。如果家长们停止抗议活动,每一个丧生的孩子可以获得6万人民币的补偿。随后,富新小学的58位家长联名起诉,要求加大赔偿金额、相关单位公开道歉。该诉状被法院驳回。

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